Education for gender equity in Spain, a socio-cultural and historical analysis

 Víctor Pérez-Samaniego, University of Valencia, Spain Carmen Santamaría-García, University of Alcalá, Spain

 This chapter analyses the socio-historical evolution of gender education in Spain in the pre and post democratic periods. In accordance with the ideology of Franco’s Regime, the period of dictatorship (1939-1975) is characterized by the education of a heroic masculinity to the service of the defense of the country and the catholic faith, while women are expected to fulfill the role of housewives and mothers. In the last period of Francoism and the beginning of democracy, a model of mixed education with a com­mon curriculum for boys and girls is established. In fact, it translates into a masculine model of education that women must assimilate. With the General Organic Law for the Educational System (LOGSE) law (1990) Spain sees the first model of equal education. However, the hegemony of the model of heroic masculinity based on competitiveness, aggressiveness and individualism, has long survived in the professional culture and in teacher training, especially in the training of physical education teachers, even when physical education seems a most adequate field for the development of gender-equity education, as the LOGSE law has been explicitly mentioning since 1990, when it was passed, to these days. For this reason, this study pays special consideration to physical education and the influence of this subject in the embodiment of masculinity.

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