Gender: a never-ending story

Luk Bosman, vzw Leer-Kracht Antwerp, Belgium

The way in which women and men can and want to relate to each other in society differs in space, time and culture, so do their roles in life and the expectations people have of them. School (alongside family, peers and media) offers a unique context in which boys and girls acquire important and meaningful experiences. Puberty and adolescence are important phases in the development of a plural identity. They are about shaping a gender identity and an identity as a pupil. In this text we plead for a didactic method for identity development with special attention to developing the ability of youngsters of getting interested in something, and to shape themselves in a meaningful way.

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Upsetting the apple cart: Overachieving girls, underachieving boys

Fiona Shelton, University of Derby, United Kingdom

Despite the fact that girls were once lagging behind boys in most subjects, girls now dominate the exam leagues in all phases and subjects, and in the UK today there are more women enrolled on undergraduate programmes than their male counter­parts. However, the frequently expressed moral panic in education that girls’ overachievement is a cause for concern is, in itself, a cause for concern. According to Paule (2008) an implication of this is that by ‘overachieving’ girls are somehow being seen as disrupting a perceived natural order, that this is a social problem and that it is the cause of boys’ underachievement. Jackson, Paechter and Renold (2010) propose that although there is a popular sentiment that we are now living in a ‘post-feminist’ world, gender inequality still exists. What constitutes feminine and masculine ways of being are constantly reinforced in everyday interactions, and the process of “gendering” individuals is ongoing and dynamic. Young people draw on their knowledge of norms and stereotypes to enact their social identities, including their gender identities and therefore essentialist thinking needs challenging to ensure that young people are able to negotiate their personal identity in more fluid ways.

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Gender and education in Turkey

 Nesrin Oruç, University of Economics, İzmir, Turkey

Like in every region of the world, the equal distribution of educational rights among all the citizens of a country has been an issue for Turkey as well. This inequity may some­times be, for example, regional or may relate to sexuality; however, what cannot be denied is the fact that there is an inequity problem in education in Turkey. Considering the importance of education for the individuals and the future of a country, this paper is an attempt to list the main factors representing the causes of inequity of education in Turkey and the projects and possible solutions recommended.

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Gender specific education in 12 European countries – a comparison

Kristof De Witte, University of Maastricht, Netherlands; Oliver Holz, University College Brussels, Belgium

Because of differing levels of performance among boys and girls, gender adequate education and upbringing is becoming increasingly significant in various European countries. Earlier investigations demonstrate that there are distinct differences between boys and girls regarding their motivation. This comparative study investigates the opinion on gender adequate teaching among school children and teachers of both sexes through surveys in twelve European countries. The results show clear differences between individual countries. Teachers point out that girl can be motivated in different ways to boys.

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From history to the present - faces of gender in Poland

Małgorzata Jarecka-Żyluk and Justyna Ratkowska-PasikowskaAkademia Pomorska w, Słupsku, Poland

“Women and men in the Polish Republic have equal rights in family, politics, society and economics. Women and men have equal rights, in particular to education, employment and promotion, equal pay for work of equal value, to social security, to hold offices, and to receive public honours and decorations. No one shall be discriminated against in political, social or economic life for any reason.”

 

 Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, art. 32.2, 33.1/2

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